RIGLAM – the path to logical thinking

Riglam or Buddhist dialectical method has been practiced in Tibetan monasteries for centuries. Riglam is seen as an effective method to achieve deeper realization of Buddhism through argumentation and counter-argumentation.

Anchored in the Basic Education Policy of 2004, riglam is seen as the core method for fostering independent, logically reasoned and creative thinking in students.

By: Tenzin Pema, Department of Education, Central Tibetan Administration
Danish intro by Johnny Baltzersen, CICED

The New Basic Education Policy for the exiled Tibetan community was born in 2004 in the tension between desperation and hope.

The majority of young Tibetan exiles went – and still go – to school and receive education in India, where the majority of the 130,000 known Tibetan exiles live and work, and where the Tibetan exile administration is headquartered in the city of Dharamsala in northern India.

Young exiled Tibetan students did not perform well in final exams compared to their Indian peers. Maintaining the rich Tibetan language also proved quite difficult in exile. Fears that the exile could not deliver on the promise of preserving Tibetan language and culture were mounting.

The dilemma was palpable and the solution could not be a return to an exclusive monastic education framework. The majority of young Tibetan exiles also wanted a life under increasingly modern conditions in a rapidly developing India.

Since 2004, the hope has been linked to the Basic Education Policy, which has the stated goal of developing an education system that has traditional Tibetan education at its core and modern education as its essential partner.

In previous CICED newsletters, we have described the impressive work of developing Tibetan language concepts in modern engineering and science. Now we can present a full description of riglam, which is increasingly seen as the method to bridge the gap between traditional and modern Tibetan teaching practices.

Riglam is made up of the words rig = reasoning/reason/logic and lam = the way to. In other words, Riglam is the path to logical thinking and is at the heart of what is also known as Buddhist dialectics.

According to a fairly common understanding of dialectics, it can be understood as a method to achieve higher or deeper realization/understanding/knowledge. In this sense, dialectics is a method of conversation that moves through the making of claims (theses) and counter-claims (antitheses) towards new and deeper realizations (synthesis).

Riglam or Buddhist dialectical method has been practiced in Tibetan monasteries for centuries. Riglam is seen as an effective method to achieve deeper realization of Buddhism through argumentation and counter-argumentation.

Anchored in the Basic Education Policy of 2004, riglam is seen as the core method for fostering independent, logically reasoned and creative thinking in students.

Since 2018, Danish aid to the exiled Tibetan community has supported many workshops and courses in Riglam. In the next phase of the collaboration, scheduled to start later in 2021, efforts will be stepped up to train Tibetan teachers in the use of riglam in all school subjects.

Instead of unfolding the presentation of riglam further ourselves, we have ‘handed the microphone’ to our partner in Dharamsala.

The article ‘Riglam, The Most Effective Traditional Pedagogy to learn Modern Subjects’ is written by Tenzin Pema, who holds a leading role the Council of Education in the exiled Tibetan Ministry of Education. The article is published here in our ViSTA online magazine. It’s not an easy read, but it’s enriching.

If you are more interested in riglam, there are a few videos on YouTube under ‘Buddhist dialectics’ or ‘dialectic Buddhism’. However, as far as I have seen, they are all only about the practice of Buddhist dialectics in monasteries.

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Riglam, The Most Effective Traditional Pedagogy to learn Modern Subjects

By: Tenzin Pema (Department of Education, Central Tibetan Administration)

There are many books on Tibetan dialectics (Riglam) written in Tibetan language, but very rare in English and other languages. There are also several talks given by His Holiness the Dalai Lama and Professor Samdhong Rinpoche on the subject and also Riglam textbooks published by the Department of Education (DoE) of the Central Tibetan Administration (CTA) for Tibetan schools. Additionally, there are many Geshes (erudite Buddhist scholars) who are expert on Riglam. Anyone who reads, listens and reflects on the benefits of Riglam, it is sure to feel that using Riglam in the process of teaching and learning every subject whether traditional or modern, is like using integrated techniques of the 21st century skills including critical thinking, collaboration, communication, problem solving, and mindfulness with immense benefit to the learner. This article briefly discusses some general ideas about Riglam. The challenges experienced while writing this article are two: the subject is new to the writer and it is hard to render the technical Riglam terms into English. Monastic scholars strongly feel that Riglam is best learned, understood and practiced in the Tibetan language as of today for authenticity, accuracy, and in-depth analysis and insights.

Key words
Dialectics, Riglam, Traditional, Tibetan, Pedagogy, Reasoning, Analyzing, Debate,

The great Nalanda Pandits or Professors Acharya Dignaga and Acharya Dharmakirti propounded the Buddhist Science of reasoning or Riglam in ancient India. Down the centuries, Chapa Choe-Kyi Senge was the first Tibetan master who innovated the Tibetan style Riglam in Tibet in 12th century. And Sakya Pandita Kunga Gyaltsen was the first Tibetan master who systematically pioneered the study of logic in Tibet, by writing a book on the Science of Logic called Tshed Ma Rig gTer, which was even translated into Sanskrit.

His Holiness the Dalai Lama often says, “It will surely be helpful if the traditional Buddhist dialectics is used for teaching modern subjects as well”. His Holiness gave suggestion to the concerned departments of the Central Tibetan Administration (CTA) to work on making specific textbooks on using Riglam (dialectics) to teach modern subjects. As a result, the Department of Education (DoE) has published three textbooks on Dialectics for classes from class VI to XII. Moreover, ‘Teacher’s handbook on teaching Science through dialectics’ and ‘Teacher’s handbook on teaching Mathematics through dialectics’ have been published by the DoE with the financial aid from Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA), and organized a series of workshops for teachers on the usage of the first handbook. It has been a time-tested technique to teach and learn Buddhism in Tibet for centuries, but Riglam is traditionally not available in the languages of other Buddhist countries including Chinese, and thus it remained unknown to many. This Riglam pedagogy is greatly beneficial method for teaching both modern and traditional subjects.

Benefits of Riglam (Traditional Tibetan Dialectics):
Riglam has been very popular in Tibetan monastic universities for centuries. Monastic scholars of Riglam find it very beneficial in their education and life.

Its many benefits includes but not limited to sharp intelligence, excellent rhetorical skills, focused attention and mindfulness, good concentration, sharp memory, deep understanding and critical insights and others. More importantly, Riglam enables one to be open minded and use critical intelligence to assess different views before one accepts any one of them. People who are trained in Riglam seem to be different from others in one way, i.e. they do not believe immediately what they hear or what the person tells them irrespective of the other person’s intention. They do not easily get influenced by others’ opinions and viewpoints for they use curiosity, critical thinking and Riglam to examine ideas and views and form their conclusion/s.

During my one year stay in the campus of Gaden Monastic institution in South India years ago, I have witnessed such lengthy debates for the first time. Monks, young and old, were extremely active and alert in debate for several consecutive hours in the debate courtyards and there was no sign of tiredness or drowsiness visible during the debate even in late evenings. They engaged in a debate with series of questions and answers, and burst into laughter now and then. Though they were debating in Tibetan, but their language of disputation was beyond my understanding due to technicality of syllogistic debate and argumentation. But I certainly saw in them a joy in learning.

His Holiness the Dalai Lama emphasized the benefits of teaching Riglam in schools by stating various examples like, “Some of the interested monks in the monasteries are being being taught science. Most of their teachers praise their intellectual caliber that although they don’t know English and Math, but their ways of analyzing things is extremely praiseworthy. They have a very clear mind.” In the words of His Holiness, “I heard about a student in Bhutan who studied Law, and later she learned Riglam. She says she is greatly benefited by Riglam in her practice now.”

His Holiness gave another example, “I heard some years ago, in one school inside Tibet, most probably in Amdo Province, some of the modern subjects were being taught through Riglam. Hence some of the teachers in the nearby Chinese government school expressed that the students graduated from that Tibetan school have much better and higher analytical thinking power and skills unlike their peers. They deliberately came to schools and asked what special teaching methodology they were using. They were very much interested in Riglam, and even started teaching it in their school. Therefore, if we could gradually find out ways as done by Jamyang Rinchen, former student of the Institute of Buddhist Dialectics, would contribute the whole world by offering a new knowledge, new system and a new guide on teaching methodology. His writing on Riglam in Chinese drew great deal of interest amongst Chinese towards Riglam.”

Similarly, His Eminence Professor Samdhong Rinpoche said, “There is no other than Riglam where body, speech, mind and Buddhist philosophy go together.” Rinpoche continued saying, “The practice of Riglam is extremely helpful to physical health as well, where one gets exercise to one’s feet, hands, waist, head, etc. and one does not need separate speech and pranayama practices. Riglam is always filled with moments of humor and laughter.” Rinpoche continued saying, “According to Kyabje Dorje Chhang (Vajradhara), for developing one’s knowledge, practicing Riglam for fifteen days is more effective than meditating Manjushri (Deity of wisdom) for several months.”

Rinpoche reiterated that from Riglam of Tibetan Science of Reasoning, we find the power or ability to analyze every received information thoroughly, like, what it is, why it is so, how it has become like this, when and where it has come into existence, etc. He advised Tibetan students to learn Riglam because it has the power to give eye-opening experience and understanding of every subject with its in-depth knowledge.

Also, in my conversation with Geshe Yeshi Gyaltsen from Gaden Jangtse Monastic Institution (Secular Ethics Mentor, DoE), he said that Riglam helps him not to be satisfied with mere superficial knowledge about anything, but drives him to dig deeper to know and understand the matter clearly. Similarly, Riglam helps him to think, plan and act on anything with long-term goals in mind. He even said that when faced with an unfortunate incident in life, he naturally tends to think about its causes and conditions, without feeling desperate and hopeless. He added that due to his knowledge in Riglam, it takes less time for him to understand the thing which may take a longer period of time if not accustomed in dialectical thinking.
Likewise, in my conversation with Geshe Ngawang Tsondue (Philosophy teacher of Mewoen Tsuglag Petoen School), he shared with me the benefits of Riglam in his life. Since he got to know and understand the system of Riglam, he never felt tired and bored in learning any Buddhist text and to revise everything taught by teachers through Riglam. Hearing bells for Riglam debate was a joy, and all the monks rushed to the debate courtyard. Many times, he felt that the duration of four & half-hour debate in the debate courtyard had swiftly passed away in the blink of an eye. Most of the monk students used to be excited and eager to take part in the daily evening debates, especially, looking forward for an opportunity to debate with senior or brighter students.

He said one interesting thing about Riglam that, he might have forgotten few specific terms in certain texts he had studied years ago, but the meaning of contents in texts are still clear in his mind. He attributes this benefit to his study and practice of Riglam. He said that if he was satisfied with what the teachers had taught about the texts and did not analyze them through Riglam, then he might have forgotten everything. So the difference between the knowledge gained through Riglam and other method is that, anything that is learned through Riglam remains clear in mind. He continued saying that the most important benefit he gained from Riglam is unshakeable confidence and trust in Buddhism. He said that through his research and analytical thinking, he is ascertained with what Lord Buddha has said. Then he added that whenever he has conversation with teachers or students on any topic, he is never satisfied with little information given by them, but asks why, for what reasons, and seeks clarity using his critical dialectics.

Learning about these benefits of Riglam, I realize that whatever knowledge traditional or modern we explore, if we critically ask questions, and see good reasons, our knowledge would be clear and firm in our mind. Riglamis all about questioning, deepening the understanding with reasons and not passively accepting the things as presented to us.

Fundamental features of Riglam
Riglam is a traditional form of debate and argumentation that involves a syllogistic format between debaters – at least a questioner and respondent. It is a very advanced form of using critical intelligence that greatly benefits both debate partners and others listening to them provided they understand the syllogistic debate format and reasoning. Every syllogistic debate format involves three terms. In Tibetan these are called Tsoe-shi/rTsodgZhi (Topic or Subject), Selwa/gSalwa (Predicate) and Taag/rTags (Reason). For example, a fish (topic) is an aquatic animal (predicate) because it lives in water for its survival (reason). Anything that lives in water for survival must necessarily be an aquatic animal.

Riglam is the methodology to make oneself understand about the particular object by analytical thinking and debate. The traditional method of learning is not through one level, but through three levels. The first level of learning is by receiving knowledge from teachers or books or any other source. The second level of learning is to understand it through thinking and investigation. The third level of learning is to think and contemplate on the knowledge one is ascertained with,” said Professor Samdhong Rinpoche.

Relatedly, there are four types of reasoning in Riglam:

  1. Reasoning of nature (ChosNyidKyi Rigs Pa). For example, burning is the nature of fire
  2. Reasoning of the performance of function (Bya Ba ByedPa’i Rigs pa). For example, the wood is burnt by fire and turned into ash.
  3. Reasoning of dependence (lTosPa’i Rigs Pa). For example, there is smoke due to fire burning the wood. If there is no fire then there is no smoke.
  4. Reasoning of logical proof (‘Thad sGrubKyi Rigs Pa). For example, if there is smoke then there must be fire as well.

Reasoning of nature considers the law of nature. For instance, water is wet and damp because dampness is the nature of water. Then analyzing any specific consequences caused by the functions of certain things is called reasoning of the performance of function. For instance in chemistry, the mixture of two or more chemicals turns into fire or water or disappears with vapour. While analyzing the causes of the event, we are likely to understand their consequences, and also analyzing the consequences enables us to understand their causes. This is called reasoning of dependence. Reasoning of logical proof means science of reasoning. We need logical mark and reasons while investigating obscure or hidden phenomenon like karma (relation of cause and effect of actions), and past & future lives. Hence, Professor Samdhong Rinpoche says that the modern scientists work with the help of the second and third types of reasoning; reasoning of dependence and reasoning of the performance of function.

Doubts and questions are the two drivers of Riglam. There is no space for untested assumption of anything, no acceptance of anything without proper reasons. The issue or the subject of disputation is displayed with a reason, and the debater argues whether the reason is feasible or not. If it is explained to be a reasonable one, then asked for more reasons and examples to prove it further. If it is not, then again asked for reasons. Relating to the previous example, a fish is an aquatic animal and every aquatic animal lives in water for survival. Therefore, it is reasonable and feasible to accept fish as an aquatic animal due to valid reasoning and logical pervasion.

In the words of Professor Samdhong Rinpoche, “Mere acceptance of the information about an ‘object’ given by teacher or textbook or any other medium, is not one’s genuine knowledge about the object. After receiving information about the object, we must understand what the object is, by raising questions like what, why, how, where, when, etc. about the object.” He shared a story about Darwin’s Theory of Evolution, an incident happened with him where he had asked series of questions about the theory. Based on Darwin’s theory of evolution, it is believed that men evolved from apes. Most of us know this from books. Who has ever questioned the authenticity of the theory? Rinpoche asked questions related to this theory. For instance, why the apes present in today’s world were not evolved, what are the qualities needed for the evolution, what are the differences between the apes that were evolved and are not evolved, will the remaining apes be evolved sometime in future or don’t they have the capacity to evolve at all.

As explained earlier, Riglam is presented in a syllogistic debate and argumentation format and the respondents also adhere to four standard responses. These are ‘Doed/’Dod’ which in Tibetan means ‘I do accept that’, ‘chi-chir/Ci’Phyir’ in Tibetan means ‘why’, ‘taag-madrub/rTags ma grub’ in Tibetan means ‘reason unproven/not established’, and ‘ma-khyab/Ma khyab’ in Tibetan means ‘it should not necessarily be so or the logical pervasion is not established’.

Some examples of these responses are as follow:

Debater: Lotus is a flower, isn’t it?
Respondent: Doed (Yes, I accept that.)

Debater: Senge is a man, isn’t it?
Respondent: Chi-chir (Why?) (Clarifying note: Senge in Tibetan means lion or just a name of a person. So, ‘why’ is a reasonable clarifying question to ask.)

3.Taag scrub
Debater: Air is hot; because it is fire.
Respondent:Taag-madrub (Reason is not established/Air is not fire)

Debater: Rose is white; because it is a flower.
Respondent:Ma-khyab (Flower should not necessarily be white/All flowers are not white)

Understanding Riglam also involves understanding four main keys;

  1. Mu-sum/Mu gSum (Three modes of possibilities),
  2. Mu-shi/Mu bZhi (Four modes of possibilities),
  3. Gel-wa/’Gal Wa (Contradictory/antithetical/Paradoxical) and
  4. Dhon-chig/Don gCig(Synonyms).

These modes of possibilities and other two keys are used to investigate relationships among a topic, a predicate, and a reason. An illustrative example of Mu-sum is provided below. For instance, relationship between white and color could be examined as follow:

White and Color:

  1. It is white but notcolour, i.e. NoMu or No Mode. (White is necessarily a color)
  2. It is a colour, but not white, i.e. RED
  3. It is white as well as color, i.e. WHITE
  4. It is not both white and color, i.e. SHAPE

Hence, the relationship between white and color is; there is no such thing which is white but no color, so the difference between white and color here is Mu-sum (three modes of possibilities). There cannot be anything that is white but no color. If it is white then it is a color. Therefore, the relationship between white and colour can be analyzed by Mu-sum. A relationship between two things that can be analyzed by all the four modes of possibilities, then it is Mu-shi.

The third key is Gel-wa in Tibetan means ‘antithetical/contradictory’. For instance; Fire and water are antithetical to each other and so are hot and cold. The characteristic of Gel-wa is that the two objects are two different entities, and they have no common basis or commonality. Fire and water are antithetical because there is no entity that is both fire and water and these two elements counteract each other. The fourth key is Dhon-chig which in Tibetan means ‘synonym or similar meaning though different names’. For instance; Brinjal and Eggplant.

Riglam-based Pedagogy in Tibetan Schools

People who are greatly benefited by Riglam often talk about its importance and necessity to teach it to the younger generation. In order to nurture intelligent and kind students, the Tibetan schools have been continuously directed to educate children in both Modern as well as Traditional education with greater emphasis on later with Riglam and Buddhism by His Holiness the Dalai Lama decades ago. The new millennium has witnessed more visible implementation towards the fulfillment of His vision via various measures such as the enactment of New Basic Education Policy for Tibetans in Exile (BEP), establishment of the terminology section at the DoE, opening of new Model school to implement BEP, teachers’ training courses and the publication of school curricula and textbooks in accordance with the principles of BEP. As cited in BEP under the Subjects of Study, “Science of Valid Cognition: The ability to penetrate deeply into subjects and into the nature of phenomena through independent investigation and search, without blindly following the word of others, can be developed from the study of Science of Valid Cognition. The teaching of this subject up to class XII with special stress shall therefore be recognized as one of the most important directives”.

Concerning the practice of Riglam in Tibetan schools, every Middle and Secondary schools are provided with philosophy teachers, and the schools are directed to allot not less than two periods in a week for Riglam and Buddhist philosophy, and the philosophy teachers are advised to utilise the prayer time in the mornings and evenings for Riglam as well. Under the guidance of His Holiness the Dalai Lama, the DoE has also published three school textbooks on Riglam for three different grade levels. The contents of each textbook vary according to the level of students’ understanding and the depth of the subject. Similarly, the DoE has published ‘Handbook for teaching Science through Dialectics for Middle School’ couple of years ago and ‘Handbook for teaching Mathematics through Dialectics’ this year. Additionally, a week-long inter-school dialectical meet is organized every year, where hundreds of students from different Tibetan schools escorted by their respective philosophy teachers gather and display their knowledge and skills in Riglam.


Every student wishes to be smart. Riglam is one of the best methods for everyone, young and old, boy or girl, to become smart mentally, rhetorically and spiritually. In my view, Riglam is the most important subject that ought to be taught and learned in schools, which opens gateway to every knowledge. Hence, the teaching and practice of Riglam should be taken more seriously by schools, teachers, parents and students, so that the result would be more visible in the society. The administration needs to publish more books on Riglam. It would be wonderful if the whole society is made thoroughly aware of the importance and benefits of Riglam. That way, parents can encourage their children to learn and practice Riglam, teachers feel inspired to spend more time on teaching and practicing Riglam, and school heads are motivated to allot more time on studying and engaging in Riglam.

What the Traditional Tibetan DIALECTICS is all about:

Debatefor not win-lose but to find the truth
Inquisitivenessto find more reasons
Analyticalthinking in education and life
Logicalreasons developed
Energeticand mindful
Focusamidst confusion
Training ofboth head and heart
Inspirationto learn more


I extend my sincere gratitude to Dr Tenzin Dorjee (Associate Professor at California State University, Fullerton, and Former Chair of the U.S. Commission on International Religious Freedom) for his accurate inputs and editing my article.


DoE. (2011). Compilation of talks and speeches on Education given by His Holiness the Dalai Lama. Fifth General Conference on Education, 242-261
DoE. (2015). Dialectics for Middle School (Grades VI, VII, VIII).
DoE. (2015). Dialectics for Secondary School (Grades IX, X).
DoE. (2015). Dialectics for Senior Secondary School (Grades XI, XII).
DoE. (2018). Handbook on teaching Science through Dialectics (For Middle School).
DoE.(2020).Handbook on teaching Mathematics through Dialectics (Primary/Middle Schools).
Professor Samdhong Rinpoche. (2015, June 23). Inaugural speech at the Dialectical Meet of Tibetan schools at TCV School Dharamsala https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2h_aIhXrrrQ
His Holiness the Dalai Lama (2016, April 16).སློབ་གྲཱ་ཁག་༢༠ནས་ཕེབས་པའི་དགེ་སློབ་གྲངས་༦༠ལ་སྩལ་བའི་བཀའ་སློབ་ལམ་སྟོན། https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=THMMYbJ-oBQ
His Holiness the Dalai Lama (2016, August 5).ལ་དྭགས་སུ་རྟེན་གཞི་བྱས་པའི་སྔ་འགྱུར་བྲག་ཐོག་དགོན་དུ་མི་མང་རྣམས་ལ་རྒྱུ་མཚན་མཐོང་བའི་སྒོ་ནས་དད་པ་བསྐྱེད་དགོས་ཚུལ་སྐོར་སྩལ་བའི་ལམ་སྟོན་བཀའ་སློབ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wRJt2i1d9Kw
His Holiness the Dalai Lama (2017, June 6).བོད་རིགས་གཞོན་སྐྱེས་རྣམས་ལ་ནང་ཆོས་ངོ་སྤྲོད་བཀའ་དྲིན་བསྐྱངས་པའི་བརྙན་འཕྲིན། https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wRJt2i1d9Kw

His Holiness the Dalai Lama. (2017, December 22). སྔ་འགྱུར་རྙིང་མའི་བཤད་གྲྭ་ཐེག་མཆོག་རྣམ་གྲོལ་གླིང་གི་བསླབ་པ་མཐར་སོན་གྱི་མཛད་སྒོ་སྐབས་༧པའི་ཚོགས་ཆེན་ཐོག་སྩལ་བའི་བཀའ་སློབ། https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QXlNDYWViO4
His Holiness the Dalai Lama. (2017, December 25). རྒྱ་གར་ལྷོ་ཕྱོགས་བེང་ལོར་ནང་རྒྱ་གར་མཐོ་སློབ་ལ་བསྐྱོད་བཞིན་པའི་བོད་རིགས་ན་གཞོན་ཚོར་བཙན་བྱོལ་གྱི་གནས་སྟངས།བོད་ཀྱི་ཆོས་དང་རིག་གཞུང་གྱི་སྐོར་ལ་སྩལ་བའི་ལམ་སྟོན་བཀའ་སློབ།། https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UAKVMS9Q4Qs
His Holiness the Dalai Lama (2018, August 13).རྒྱ་གར་ལྷོ་ཕྱོགས་ཏཱ་ལའི་བླ་མ་མཐོ་རིམ་སློབ་གཉེར་ཁང་དུ་བཀའ་སློབ་བཀའ་དྲིན་སྩལ་བའི་བརྙན་འཕྲིན། https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o_v5eD-0fbM
His Holiness the Dalai Lama (2019, April 26).ནང་པའི་གཞུང་ནས་གསུང་པའི་སེམས་ཁམས་རིག་པར་དོ་སྣང་བྱེད་དགོས་པའི་བཀའ་སློབ།https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WmCz207zKeo

His Holiness the Dalai Lama. (2019, December 18). འབྲས་སྤུངས་བློ་གསལ་གླིང་གི་དམ་གཟིགས་ལ་ཆིབས་བསྒྱུར་བཀའ་དྲིན་བསྐྱངས་པའི་བརྙན་འཕྲིན།
His Holiness the Dalai Lama. (2019, December 19). དགའ་ལྡན་ཤར་རྩེ་གྲྭ་ཚང་གི་དམ་གཟིགས་སྐབས་བཀའ་སློབ་བཀའ་དྲིན་བསྐྱངས་པའི་བརྙན་འཕྲིན།
His Holiness the Dalai Lama (2019, December 23).དགའ་ལྡན་བྱང་རྩེ་གྲྭ་ཚང་གི་དམ་གཟིགས་ལ་བླང་དོར་བཀའ་སློབ་བཀའ་དྲིན་བསྐྱངས་པའི་བརྙན་འཕྲིན།

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